Heat treatment improves some wood properties namely: equilibrium moisture, dimensional stability and durability and mechanical properties. In this study, the heat treatment was applied to woods of three natural species from Brazil: Aspidosperma populifolium (peroba mica), Dipteryx odorata (cumaru) and Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga). The woods were heated in an oven under vacuum and under nitrogen, at 80, 200, and 220 °C for one hour. The untreated and heat-treated woods were characterized in relation to equilibrium moisture content, basic density, shrinkage, Janka hardness, and bending MOR and MOE according to NBR 7190 standards. All the thermal rectified woods showed a reduction in the hygroscopic equilibrium content, especially when the heating was under vacuum from 13-15 % in the untreated woods to 1-3 % for vacuum treatment at 220 °C. The dimensional stability was improved to only a small extent e.g. volumetric shrinkage tended to decrease with increasing temperature. The mechanical properties were affected differently for the three wood species. Heat- treated cumaru showed increased Janka hardness, MOR and MOE; and peroba mica increased MOR and MOE but not Janka hardness; while bracatinga was less influenced by the heat treatment.