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Phylogenetic clustering and rarity imply risk of local species extinction in prospective deep-sea mining areas of the Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone

Authors
  • Macheriotou, Lara1
  • Rigaux, Annelien1
  • Derycke, Sofie1, 2
  • Vanreusel, Ann1
  • 1 Marine Biology Research Group, Department of Biology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, Building S8, 9000 Ghent , (Belgium)
  • 2 Aquatic Environment and Quality, Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende , (Belgium)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Proceedings of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences
Publisher
The Royal Society
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2020
Volume
287
Issue
1924
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.2666
PMID: 32228410
PMCID: PMC7209057
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

An understanding of the forces controlling community structure in the deep sea is essential at a time when its pristineness is threatened by polymetallic nodule mining. Because abiotically defined communities are more sensitive to environmental change, we applied occurrence- and phylogeny-based metrics to determine the importance of biotic versus abiotic structuring processes in nematodes, the most abundant invertebrate taxon of the Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ), an area targeted for mining. We investigated the prevalence of rarity and the explanatory power of environmental parameters with respect to phylogenetic diversity (PD). We found evidence for aggregation and phylogenetic clustering in nematode amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and the dominant genus Acantholaimus , indicating the influence of environmental filtering, sympatric speciation, affinity for overlapping habitats and facilitation for community structure. PD was associated with abiotic variables such as total organic carbon, chloroplastic pigments equivalents and/or mud content, explaining up to 57% of the observed variability and providing further support of the prominence of environmental structuring forces. Rarity was high throughout, ranging from 64 to 75% unique ASVs. Communities defined by environmental filtering with a prevalence of rarity in the CCFZ suggest taxa of these nodule-bearing abyssal plains will be especially vulnerable to the risk of extinction brought about by the efforts to extract them.

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