-amino ester)s polymers (PHP)-based micellar nanoparticles were synthesized for enhanced doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in drug resistant breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells. DOX-loaded PHP micelles showed rapid cell-internalization and lysosomal escape in MCF-7/ADR cells. The cytotoxicity assays showed relatively higher cell inhibition of DOX-loaded PHP micelles than that of free DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that PHP micelles were able to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity by lowering mitochondrial membrane potentials and ATP levels. These results suggested that the enhanced antitumor effect might be attributed to PHP-mediated lysosomal escape and drug efflux inhibition. Therefore, PHP would be a promising pH-responsive nanocarrier for enhanced intracellular drug delivery and overcoming MDR in cancer cells.