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Phragmoplast microtubule dynamics - a game of zones.

Authors
  • Smertenko, Andrei1, 2
  • Hewitt, Seanna L2, 3
  • Jacques, Caitlin N2, 4
  • Kacprzyk, Rafal5
  • Liu, Yan2, 6
  • Marcec, Matthew J2, 7
  • Moyo, Lindani2, 7
  • Ogden, Aaron5, 2
  • Oung, Hui Min5, 2
  • Schmidt, Sharol5, 2
  • Serrano-Romero, Erika A2, 6
  • 1 Institute of Biological Chemistry, Pullman, WA 99164, USA [email protected]
  • 2 Molecular Plant Sciences Graduate Program, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  • 3 Department of Horticulture, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  • 4 Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  • 5 Institute of Biological Chemistry, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  • 6 School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
  • 7 Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Cell Science
Publisher
The Company of Biologists
Publication Date
Jan 29, 2018
Volume
131
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1242/jcs.203331
PMID: 29074579
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Plant morphogenesis relies on the accurate positioning of the partition (cell plate) between dividing cells during cytokinesis. The cell plate is synthetized by a specialized structure called the phragmoplast, which consists of microtubules, actin filaments, membrane compartments and associated proteins. The phragmoplast forms between daughter nuclei during the transition from anaphase to telophase. As cells are commonly larger than the originally formed phragmoplast, the construction of the cell plate requires phragmoplast expansion. This expansion depends on microtubule polymerization at the phragmoplast forefront (leading zone) and loss at the back (lagging zone). Leading and lagging zones sandwich the 'transition' zone. A population of stable microtubules in the transition zone facilitates transport of building materials to the midzone where the cell plate assembly takes place. Whereas microtubules undergo dynamic instability in all zones, the overall balance appears to be shifted towards depolymerization in the lagging zone. Polymerization of microtubules behind the lagging zone has not been reported to date, suggesting that microtubule loss there is irreversible. In this Review, we discuss: (1) the regulation of microtubule dynamics in the phragmoplast zones during expansion; (2) mechanisms of the midzone establishment and initiation of cell plate biogenesis; and (3) signaling in the phragmoplast.

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