Symbioses between sponges and photosynthetic organisms are very diverse regarding the taxonomy and biogeography of both hosts and symbionts; to date, most research has focused on the exploration of bacterial diversity. The present study aims to characterize the culturable diversity of photosynthetic eukaryotes associated with sponges in the Aegean Sea, on which no information exists. Five microalgae strains were isolated from marine sponges; the strains were characterized by morphological features, and the 18S rRNA, 18S-28S Internal Transcribed Spacer, and ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain (rbcL) sequences. Our polyphasic approach showed that the strains belonged to the green-alga Acrochaete leptochaete, the diatom Nanofrustulum cf. shiloi, the rhodophyte Acrochaetium spongicola, and the chlorachniophyte Lotharella oceanica. A. leptochaete is reported for the first time in sponges, even though green algae are known to be associated with sponges. Nanofrustulum shiloi was found in association with the sponges Agelas oroides and Chondrilla nucula, whereas information existed only for its association with the species Aplysina aerophoba. Acrochaetium spongicola was found for the first time in association with sponges in the eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, we report herein for the first time a sponge-chlorarachniophycean association. Our research revealed new diversity of microalgae associated with sponges and added new records of sponge species, previously unknown for their association with microalgae. © 2020 International Society of Protistologists.