Absorption and fluorescence spectrum band moments (center of gravity, width, asymmetry, excess, and fine structure) have been determined in a wide range of solvents with different polarities for inverse solvatochromic di-, tetra-, and hexamethinemerocyanines derived from 1,3-diphenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole. Juxtaposition of the quantum-chemically calculated (by the semiempirical AM1 method) charges, bond orders, and dipole moments of the merocyanine molecules in the ground and excited singlet states with the experimentally observed spectral fluorescent characteristics suggests that the molecular electronic structure in the two states can vary from a nonpolar polyene via a polymethine to a charge-separated polyene, depending on the length of the polymethine chain and the medium polarity. As shown, solvatofluorochromism gives rise to smaller spectral band shifts than those of solvatochromism. This effect is attributable to weaker intermolecular solute-solvent interactions in the fluorescent excited state due to the more equalized charges as compared to those of the ground state. A lack of mirror symmetry of the absorption and fluorescence spectra has been revealed for di- and tetramethinemerocyanines (broadened fluorescence bands) as well as for hexamethinemerocyanines (narrowed fluorescence bands); the two cases are accounted for by the different behavior of vibronic and intermolecular interactions in the course of absorption and emission. As found for merocyanines, the electronic structure of their fluorescent state approaches the cyanine limit and the ground state becomes increasingly polyene-like with lengthening of the polymethine chain. A close vicinity of the excited state to the cyanine limit causes a dramatic increase in fluorescence quantum yields and a decrease in Stokes shifts observed for higher merocyanine vinylogues.