Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) was used to probe photon induced charge separation in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a function of excitation energy. Both positive and negative photovoltage signals were observed under sub-band-gap (<2.0 eV) and super-band-gap (>2.0 eV) excitation of the polymer. The dependence of the spectra on substrate work function, thermal annealing, film thickness, and illumination intensity was investigated, allowing the identification of interface, charge transfer (CT), and band-gap states in the amorphous and crystalline regions of the polymer films. The ability to probe these states in polymer films will aid the development and optimization of organic electronic devices such as photovoltaics (OPVs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and field effect transistors (OFETs). The direction and size of the observed photovoltage features can be explained using the depleted semiconductor model. © 2013 American Chemical Society.