Patterning, the controlled formation of ordered surface features with different physico-chemical properties, is a cornerstone of contemporary micro- and nanofabrication. In this context, lithographic approaches owe their wide success to their versatility and their relative ease of implementation and scalability. Conventional photolithographic methods require several steps and the use of polymeric photoresists for the development of the desired pattern, all factors which can be deleterious, especially for sensitive substrates. Efficient patterning of surfaces, with resolution down to the nanometer scale, can be achieved by means of photocatalytic lithography. This approach is based on the use of photocatalysts to achieve the selective chemical modification or degradation of self-assembled monolayers, polymers, and metals. A wide range of photoactive compounds, from semiconducting oxides to porphyrins, have been demonstrated to be suitable photocatalysts. The goal of the present review is to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art photocatalytic lithography, ranging from approaches based on semiconducting oxides to singlet oxygen-based lithography. Special attention will be dedicated to the results obtained for the patterning of polymer brushes, the sculpturing of metal nanoparticle arrays, and the patterning of graphene-based structures.