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The phonon thermal Hall angle in black phosphorus

  • Li, Xiaokang
  • Machida, Yo
  • Subedi, Alaska
  • Zhu, Zengwei
  • Li, Liang
  • Behnia, Kamran
Published Article
Publication Date
Jan 19, 2023
Submission Date
Jan 02, 2023
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-36750-3
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The origin of phonon thermal Hall Effect (THE) observed in a variety of insulators is yet to be identified. Here, we report on the observation of a thermal Hall conductivity in a non-magnetic elemental insulator, with an amplitude exceeding what has been previously observed. In black phosphorus (BP), the longitudinal ($\kappa_{ii}$), and the transverse, $\kappa_{ij}$, thermal conductivities peak at the same temperature and at this peak temperature, the $\kappa_{ij}/\kappa_{jj}/B $ is $\approx 10^{-4}$-$10^{-3}$ T$^{-1}$. Both these features are shared by other insulators displaying THE, despite an absolute amplitude spreading over three orders of magnitude. The absence of correlation between the thermal Hall angle and the phonon mean-free-path imposes a severe constraint for theoretical scenarios of THE. We show that in BP a longitudinal and a transverse acoustic phonon mode anti-cross, facilitating wave-like transport across modes and the anisotropic charge distribution surrounding atomic bonds, paving the way for coupling with magnetic field.

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