Pheochromocytomas are functioning paragangliomas often presenting with paroxysmal hypertension due to catecholamine secretion. The preferential diagnostic workup includes urine and serum catecholamine measurements. Therapeutic management consists of pharmacologic cardiovascular manipulation and volume expansion with subsequent surgical resection. We have encountered a symptomatic pheochromocytoma in a chronic renal insufficiency patient on hemodialysis. The diagnostic dilemma arose due to the patient's anuric status and the inherent increase in serum catecholamine levels noted in anuric patients. The therapeutic dilemma arose in the proper pharmacologic management and volume expansion in this patient on hemodialysis. The patient underwent successful resection of the pheochromocytoma and has done well. An analysis of our diagnostic and therapeutic processes as well as a review of the literature are presented to assist in the management of this difficult clinical situation.