Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (known as Xuanshen) has been used in China for centuries as a traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous diseases including inflammation, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. In this review, we provide an update on the botany, pharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, traditional uses, and safety of S. ningpoensis to highlight future research needs and potential uses of this plant. All information on S. ningpoensis was obtained from scientific databases including ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, Sci Finder, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar. Additional information was collected from Chinese herbal medicine books, Ph.D. dissertations, and M.Sc. Theses. Plant taxonomy was verified by "The Plant List" database (http://www.theplantlist.org). S. ningpoensis displays fever reducing, detoxifying, and nourishing 'Yin' effects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). More than 162 compounds have been identified and isolated from S. ningpoensis, including iridoids and iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoid glycosides, organic acids, volatile oils, terpenoids, saccharides, flavonoids, sterols, and saponins. These compounds possess a diverse variety of pharmacological properties that affect the cardiovascular, hepatic, and nervous systems, and protect the body against inflammation, oxidation, and carcinogenesis. Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that S. ningpoensis is a valuable Chinese medicinal herb with many pharmacological uses in the treatment of cardiovascular, diabetic, and liver diseases. Most of the S. ningpoensis activity may be attributed to iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides; however, detailed information on the molecular mechanisms, metabolic activity, toxicology, and structure-function relationships of active components is limited. Further comprehensive research to evaluate the medicinal properties of S. ningpoensis is needed. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.