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Pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action, indications, and adverse effects of timolol maleate, a nonselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent.

Authors
  • Dunn, F G
  • Frohlich, E D
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pharmacotherapy
Publication Date
Jan 01, 1981
Volume
1
Issue
3
Pages
188–200
Identifiers
PMID: 6765488
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Timolol, a nonselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent without intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilizing activity, has been shown effective in the treatment of angina and hypertension. It is particularly useful in patients with stable angina pectoris and patients with mild to moderate hypertension. In both of these conditions, timolol appears to be comparable to propranolol. A recent study has suggested that timolol reduces mortality and reinfarction rate in patients who have recently had a myocardial infarction. When given topically timolol reduces intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma; the drug may be used as the primary agent or as an adjunct to standard therapy. Careful selection of patients will reduce the frequency of adverse effects due to beta-receptor inhibition. Thus, timolol should not be used in patients who are predisposed to asthmatic bronchitis or cardiac failure, and it should be used with caution in patients with peripheral vascular disease or diabetes mellitus.

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