These experiments demonstrated that the exposure of peritoneal surfaces to gemcitabine is significantly increased with i.p. gemcitabine. Intraabdominal hyperthermia had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of i.p. gemcitabine but there was evidence of increased absorption of gemcitabine in most intraabdominal tissues. Due to the likelihood of a high incidence of microscopic residual disease after resection of a pancreatic carcinoma, clinical studies to evaluate i.p. hyperthermic gemcitabine may be indicated.