The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin were evaluated after increasing single oral doses of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg, and an intravenous dose of 100 mg given to each of 12 healthy volunteers (6 females and 6 males). Concentrations in serum and urine were determined by microbiological assay. The rise in peak serum concentrations and the values of the total area under the serum concentration curve were proportional to the increase in the oral doses. As the oral dose increased a slight increase was observed in the apparent time lag before absorption from 0.34 h after 100 mg to 0.53 h after 1000 mg. The serum half-life after the intravenous dose was 3.2 h. After the oral doses shorter apparent half-life values were observed. The intravenous dose showed an elimination phase distribution volume of 2.76 l/kg and total body clearance of 40.7 l/h. The total urinary excretion was 42.2 +/- 15.6% of the dose after the intravenous dose; the figure was lower after the oral doses. The bioavailability of the 100 mg oral dose was 83.7% as calculated from the value of the total area under the serum curve after the same oral and intravenous dose in all 12 subjects. Ciprofloxacin thus demonstrates normal linear pharmacokinetics, the rise in serum concentrations being proportional to the dose.