1. The pharmacokinetics of a single 1 mg dose of cilazapril were determined in six subjects with normal renal function and in 19 uraemic patients with various degrees of renal impairment. 2. Significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noted in all groups of subjects between 2 and 8 h after administration of 1 mg cilazapril. 3. There was a significant correlation between ACE inhibition at 24 h and creatinine clearance (CrCL). 4. For cilazapril, Cmax and tmax were independent of creatinine clearance. AUC(24) was inversely related to CrCL and apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) was directly related to CrCL. 5. For cilazaprilat, Cmax and tmax were related to creatinine clearance. AUC(24) was inversely related to CrCl and apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) was directly related to CrCL. 6. Dialysis clearance was approximately 2 l h-1 for cilazapril and for cilazaprilat. 7. The effects of renal impairment on cilazapril and cilazaprilat kinetics were similar to those observed for other inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme such as captopril, enalapril and lisinopril. 8. It may be necessary to modify doses of cilazapril for the treatment of essential hypertension in uraemic patients. When creatinine clearance was below 15 ml min-1 cilazaprilat concentrations were increased, half-lives were prolonged and ACE inhibition remained above 90% for at least 24 h. A reduced dosage is indicated for these patients. 9. In patients requiring haemodialysis, maintenance doses of 0.5 mg given after each haemodialysis session are sufficient.