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Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Voriconazole following Intravenous- to Oral-Dose Escalation Regimens

Authors
  • L. Purkins
  • N. Wood
  • P. Ghahramani
  • K. Greenhalgh
  • M. J. Allen
  • D. Kleinermans
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Aug 01, 2002
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Pharmacology
License
Unknown

Abstract

In this study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.)- to oral-dose regimens of voriconazole were evaluated with a group of 42 healthy men, 41 of whom completed the study. Two cohorts of subjects participated in the study. Cohort 1 (n = 28) took part in two study periods, each consisting of 14 days separated by a minimum 7-day washout. In one of the periods, 14 subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. twice a day (b.i.d.) on day 1 followed by 3 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7 and were then switched to 200 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. In the other period, subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on day 1 followed by 5 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7and were then switched to 400 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. The remaining 14 subjects in cohort 1 received a matching placebo throughout the study. In cohort 2 (n = 14), 7 subjects received 6 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on day 1 followed by 4 mg/kg i.v. b.i.d. on days 2 to 7 and were then switched to 300 mg orally b.i.d. for days 8 to 14. The remaining seven subjects in cohort 2 received a matching placebo. Blood samples were taken prior to dosing on days 1 to 6 and on days 8 to 13. Blood samples were drawn prior to dosing and at frequent intervals up to 12 h following the morning dose on days 7 and 14 of each study period. The samples were assayed for voriconazole by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. The maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) occurred at the end of the 1-h i.v. infusion and between 1.4 and 1.8 h after oral administration. Voriconazole exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics, possibly due to saturable metabolism. For cohort 1, both Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve within a dosage interval (AUCτ) increased disproportionately with dose for both i.v. and oral dosing. For i.v. dosing, a 1.7-fold increase in dose resulted in 2.4- and 3.1-fold increases in Cmax and AUCτ, respectively. Similarly, a 2-fold increase in oral dosing resulted in 2.8- and 3.9-fold increases in Cmax and AUCτ, respectively. The mean values for Cmax observed following oral dosing were lower than those obtained after i.v. administration, ranging from 62.7 to 89.6% of the i.v. value. After the switch from i.v. to oral dosing, most subjects achieved steady state by day 4, and mean minimum concentrations in plasma remained above clinically important MICs. The pharmacokinetic profiles for saliva followed a pattern similar to those observed for plasma; there was a highly significant correlation between plasma and saliva voriconazole concentrations (P < 0.0001). Voriconazole was well tolerated; the most commonly reported adverse events in voriconazole-treated subjects were mild to moderate headache, rash, and abnormal vision. Visual function tests detected no further abnormalities during voriconazole treatment.

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