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Perspectives in multiphasic osteochondral tissue engineering

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Queensland University of Technology ePrints Archive
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Abstract

Critical-sized osteochondral defects are clinically challenging, with limited treatment options available. By engineering osteochondral grafts using a patient's own cells and osteochondral scaffolds designed to facilitate cartilage and bone regeneration, osteochondral defects may be treated with less complications and better long-term clinical outcomes. Scaffolds can influence the development and structure of the engineered tissue, and there is an increased awareness that osteochondral tissue engineering concepts need to take the in vivo complexities into account in order to increase the likelihood of successful osteochondral tissue repair. The developing trend in osteochondral tissue engineering is the utilization of multiphasic scaffolds to recapitulate the multiphasic nature of the native tissue. Cartilage and bone have different structural, mechanical, and biochemical microenvironments. By designing osteochondral scaffolds with tissue-specific architecture, it may be possible to enhance osteochondral repair within shorter timeframe. While there are promising in vivo outcomes using multiphasic approaches, functional regeneration of osteochondral constructs still remains a challenge. In this review, we provide an overview of in vivo osteochondral repair studies that have taken place in the past three years, and define areas which needs improvement in future studies

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