The concept of personalised medicine is recent but the underlying notions are not new: knowing how to adapt care to patients' characteristics is one of the components of the "art of medicine". The advances of science allow to refine considerably the applications of the concept in many fields of medicine including COPD: research has identified phenotypes, endotypes and treatable traits. Personalisation can be applied to all components of care. For instance, the decision to perform screening spirometry relies not only on risk factors (age, smoking, other exposures) but also on symptoms. Assessment of comorbidities often associated with COPD is based on risk factors and their combinations, variable between individuals. Rehabilitation and its components are in essence highly individualised, which a major condition for their success. Last but not least, personalisation of pharmacological therapy, which has long been rather poor, could not benefit from biomarkers of interest (predictive of response), such as blood eosinophil count. Practical strategies using these still need to be established, and new biomarkers may usefully enrich the collection! Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.