B19 infection can be acquired by transmission with blood factors in patients with congenital bleeding disorders, requiring clotting factor concentrates. In immunodeficient patients, the failure of immunity to clear B19 virus may produce persistent infections. The presence of B19 DNA in blood samples from seven haemophilic patients with concomitant HIV-1 infection was studied over a period of three-to-four years. Dot blot hybridization assays with DNA and RNA probes were used to detect medium high viremias, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect very low viremic titres. Three patients were negative for B19 DNA in all the blood samples, while four patients were persistently positive for B19 DNA. Viral persistence, which in one patient was detected throughout the study period (40 months), occurred at low titre in all four positive patients with some recurrent increases in viral titre. In the four patients persistently positive for B19 DNA, acute or chronic clinical symptoms and signs that could be associated with B19 were not noted when virus was present at low titre (B19 DNA detectable only by PCR). When patients had a higher viral titre (B19 DNA detectable by dot blot hybridization) acute manifestations (aplastic crisis, Fifth disease, fevers, pneumonitis) were found.