To examine the nature of age-dependent cognitive decline, performance in terms of concurrent object discriminations was assessed in aged and nonaged Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Aged monkeys required more sessions and committed more errors than nonaged ones in the discriminations, even in simple object discriminations. Analyses of errors suggest that aged monkeys repeated the same errors and committed more errors when they chose a negative object at the 1st trial. A hypothesis analysis of behavior suggests that their incorrect choices were mainly due to object preference. Therefore, the impairment was probably caused by a failure to inhibit inappropriate responses. Together with previous neuropsychological findings, deficits of aged monkeys in the performance of object discriminations can be explained by dysfunction of the frontal cortex.