Changes in peroxidase activity during pregnancy were examined in CD-1 mice. Peroxidase activity was measured with guaiacol as the substrate in uterine extracts of nonpregnant mice and in uterine, placental, and fetal extracts of pregnant mice on days 9, 12, 14, 16, and 18 of gestation. Uterine peroxidase activity in nonpregnant mice was high, but declined logarithmically to only 0.2% by day 18 of pregnancy. In contrast to this decline, a concomitant 50-fold logarithmic increase in fetal peroxidase activity was observed between day 12 and 18. Activity in placental extracts did not change significantly throughout the gestational period examined. These results suggest that membrane bound peroxidase in mouse uterus and fetus undergoes major shifts during pregnancy.