Plantago princeps var. princeps is an endangered native Hawaiian plant, and part of the recovery plan includes repopulation using plants grown in a nursery. However, disease pressure from downy mildew is hindering repopulation efforts. The organism associated with the downy mildew was determined to be a Peronospora species with brown, ellipsoid conidia measuring 21 by 16 µm on average, which was morphologically different from validly described species of Peronospora that infect Plantago species, but it was morphologically similar to the invalidly published species Peronospora lanceolatae (Art. 40.1). Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1), mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (cox2), nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and nuclear 28S rRNA D1-D2 (28S) loci revealed the unknown Peronospora to be molecularly divergent from Peronospora alta and Peronsopora plantaginis, but very similar to Peronospora from Plantago lanceolata, the type host of P. lanceolatae. Phylogenetic trees inferred with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference from a concatenated alignmaent and individual gene trees confirmed the divergence of the unknown Peronospora from P. alta and P. plantaginis and its similarity to P. lanceolatae. However, attempts to inoculate Plantago lanceolata with the strain from Plantago princeps var. princeps were unsuccessful, which, in conjunction with divergence in ITS, suggests that the unknown Peronospora is specific to Plantago princeps var. princeps. Herein, the Peronospora strain on Plantago princeps var. princeps is described as the new species Peronospora kuewa based on morphology, molecular phylogenetics, and host specificity. In addition, Peronospora gaponenkoae is described here to honor Nina Ivanova Gaponenko on the basis of her description of P. lanceolatae.