Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) affects both leptomeningeal and parenchymal blood vessels and is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some vessels, CAA is accompanied by localized neuritic dystrophy around the affected blood vessel. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and severity of perivascular neuritic dystrophy in primary visual and visual association cortices. The severity of perivascular neuritic dystrophy and Abeta deposition was scored in an association cortex (Brodmann area 18) and a primary cortex (Brodmann area 17) with double labeling immunohistochemistry for tau and Abeta in 31 cases of AD with severe CAA. The perivascular tau neuritic dystrophy score was significantly worse in visual association cortex than in primary visual cortex. On the other hand, there was no difference in the perivascular Abeta score between the two cortices. There were positive correlations between the severity of perivascular tau and perivascular Abeta scores for both primary and association cortices. The results suggest that the local neuronal environment determines the severity and nature of the perivascular neuritic pathology more than the severity of the intrinsic vascular disease and suggest a close association between perivascular amyloid deposits, so-called dyshoric angiopathy, and perivascular neuritic dystrophy.