Our objective was to analyze the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in HIV patients at risk and to compare them with the general population. All HIV patients older than 50 years who attended our unit from October 2005-July 2006 and all persons attending for an annual medical checkup at an employees' insurance association during the same period were invited to participate in the study. Of the latter (n = 407), a person of the same sex and age (+/-5 years) was included for each HIV patient. PAD was assessed by the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in all subjects, and all completed the Edinburgh questionnaire. Ninety-nine HIV patients and 99 persons from the general population of the same age and sex were included in the study. The HIV patients had a greater prevalence of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and PAD, which was symptomatic in five of them and in one subject from the general population. Patients with HIV infection older than 50 had a high prevalence of PAD, and as it was asymptomatic in half the cases, an ABI may be performed in this population to actively look for PAD. Control of cardiovascular risk factors and the use of such drugs as platelet antiaggregation agents should therefore be optimized in this population.