Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and is an important marker of systemic atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the associated risk factors for PAD in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We collected the basic data and possible risk factors associated with PAD for 277 patients on maintenance HD. Furthermore, we measured ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) in these patients. PAD was defined as an ABI value less than 0.90. The prevalence of PAD in our HD center was 22.8% (61/268). Advanced age (P = 0.006), longer history of HD (P < 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.002) and presence of PAD symptoms (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of PAD. PAD patients with diabetes had shorter history of HD (P = 0.001). 2-vessel PAD had higher serum cholesterol in HD patients (>or= 200 vs < 200 mg/dL; Odds ratio, 12.12, 95% confidence interval, 2.199-67.79; P < 0.004).