Many ambulatory surgery centers use body mass index as a screening tool to make admissions decisions because of complication risks associated with high-body mass index patients. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate perioperative complications in a cohort of high-body mass index patients undergoing hand and elbow surgery at an ambulatory surgery center. The authors' hypothesis was that anesthesia-related complications for this cohort would be similar to those of a normal-body mass index group. The authors retrospectively reviewed data from all hand and elbow procedures performed on patients with a high body mass index (>40 kg/m). One hundred eighty-nine high-body mass index patients and 189 normal-body mass index patients were included in the analysis. The average weight-based dosage of propofol was similar in both groups but was lower in the high-body mass index group for midazolam and fentanyl. Two high-body mass index patients had oxygen desaturations in the postanesthesia care unit. No patients developed complications related to anesthesia. In the high-body mass index group, one patient developed hypotension in the postanesthesia care unit, was admitted to the emergency room for monitoring, but was discharged the following morning. Outpatient hand surgical care of high-body mass index patients can be performed safely. Body mass index alone should not be considered as an absolute contraindication for surgery. Careful patient selection, evaluation of comorbidities, and close involvement of the anesthesia and medical teams are critical. Risk, II.