Patients after stroke may have different rehabilitation needs due to various levels of disability. To satisfy such needs, a performance-based hybrid control is proposed for a cable-driven upper-limb rehabilitation robot (CDULRR). The controller includes three working modes, i.e., resistance mode, assistance mode and restriction mode, which are switched by the tracking error since it is a common index to represent motor performance. In resistance mode, the proper damping force would be provided for subjects, which is in the opposite direction to the actual velocity. In assistance mode, a method of adjusting stiffness coefficient by fuzzy logic is adopted to provide suitable assistance to help subjects. In restriction mode, the damping force is applied again to limit the movement and ensure the safety. To verify the effectiveness of the controller, the task-oriented experiments with different disturbance were conducted by ten healthy subjects. The experiments results demonstrated that the controller can adjust working modes by the subjects' motor performance. It was found that, as the increasing disturbance led to a decrease in the motor performance, the robot provided more assistance in the trainings. Adaptive adjustment of damping force and stiffness coefficient allowed the controller to induce more active effort.