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Performance of Machine Learning-Based Multi-Model Voting Ensemble Methods for Network Threat Detection in Agriculture 4.0

Authors
  • peppes;, nikolaos
Publication Date
Nov 10, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/s21227475
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/1424-8220/21/22/7475/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

The upcoming agricultural revolution, known as Agriculture 4.0, integrates cutting-edge Information and Communication Technologies in existing operations. Various cyber threats related to the aforementioned integration have attracted increasing interest from security researchers. Network traffic analysis and classification based on Machine Learning (ML) methodologies can play a vital role in tackling such threats. Towards this direction, this research work presents and evaluates different ML classifiers for network traffic classification, i.e., K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Classification (SVC), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF) and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), as well as a hard voting and a soft voting ensemble model of these classifiers. In the context of this research work, three variations of the NSL-KDD dataset were utilized, i.e., initial dataset, undersampled dataset and oversampled dataset. The performance of the individual ML algorithms was evaluated in all three dataset variations and was compared to the performance of the voting ensemble methods. In most cases, both the hard and the soft voting models were found to perform better in terms of accuracy compared to the individual models.

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