In the context of progress in the electrochemical energy storage systems in the transport field, especially in the aeronautics, the issues of performance, reliability, safety and robustness of these elements are essential for users. This thesis is focused on these issues for the more electric aircraft. The technologies studied correspond to the latest generation commercial elements of Lithium-ion batteries (NMC/ graphite + SiO, NCA/graphite, LFP/graphite, NMC/LTO), Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S), Supercapacitor and Lithium-ion capacitors. The first part of this manuscript is dedicated to the performance quantification of the different electrochemical energy storage elements in aeronautical environment [-20°C, 55°C] and usage. An efficient and accurate electro-thermal model is developed and validated. The second part is devoted to the calendar and power cycling ageings as well as to the presentation of abuse testing results. A State Of Health (SOH) estimation based on incremental capacity analysis method is proposed. Finally, the robustness of the storage elements during accelerated ageing tests with a specific profile for the aeronautical usage is evaluated. The ageing models and SOH estimation methods proposed in the previous sections are used here to evaluate the impact of temperature on the degradation rate and to estimate the SOH of the cells with this aeronautical profile.