Introduction A patient safety culture (PSC) is a complex phenomenon, representing an essential part of the organizational culture and refers to the shared values, conceptions and beliefs which contribute to the formation and encouragement of safe behavioural models in a health organization. With this study, the authors wanted to delineate the attitude of hospital staff in Bulgaria regarding PSC and to document to whether attitudes differ between physicians and other healthcare professionals (HCPs). Methods A national cross-sectional survey among 384 HCPs was conducted using an online version of the Bulgarian version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (B-HSOPSC). The data was analysed with descriptive statistics, non-parametric Mann-Whitney U and x 2 tests. Results The physicians represented 37.50% (144) of the sample and other HCPs 62.50% (240). Respondents from governmental/municipal hospitals prevailed (53.6%). The dimensions “Staffing” and “Non-punitive response to error” were most problematic, as their percentage of positive response rates (PRRs) were lowest. However, “Handoffs and transitions” and “Supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety“ showed the highest mean values in both physicians and other HCPs. From all participants, 76.0% have never reported an adverse event or error. Conclusion The results of the study show that all respondents demonstrate a positive attitude regarding PSC. A comparison of the mean values and that of PRRs in the dimensions did not show any group differences, according to the type of staff position, i.e. physicians or other HCPs.