At least four peptides play a vital role in plant cell-cell communication by means of their specific receptors. Two of these receptors have been identified as receptor kinases, which form a large family of receptor molecules in plants. These findings highlight the significance of receptor-mediated peptide signaling in various physiological events in plants, and predict the existence of further peptide-signal-interacting receptor kinases. Some candidates have been found in plant genomes. Here, we outline recent progress and future challenges in the signaling peptide analysis, which began with systemin, phytosulfokine, CLAVATA3 and S-locus cysteine-rich protein (also called S-locus protein 11).