Oral administration of carbaryl to adult male albino rats produced a dose dependent increase in the steady state level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) at 1.00 h in pons-medulla (PM). 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration was significantly elevated only in response to a higher dose of this pesticide under similar conditions. A time course study with carbaryl and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) showed a characteristic elevation of the steady state level of 5-HT in PM, but the 5-HIAA level was significantly elevated at 0.5 h only after carbaryl treatment. No significant change of the 5-HIAA level was evident after administration of PTZ alone or in combination with carbaryl. Tryptophan concentration was significantly elevated in PM at 0.5 h after carbaryl treatment and at 1.0 h after carbaryl + PTZ treatment. No significant change of tryptophan concentration was evident after the administration of PTZ alone under similar conditions. Measurement of (1) pargyline induced (a) accumulation of 5-HT and (b) depletion of 5-HIAA levels, and (2) probenecid-induced accumulation of 5-HIAA level in presence and absence of carbaryl and revealed that carbaryl accelerated the synthesis as well as the breakdown of 5-HT, whereas PTZ alone or in combination with carbaryl accelerated the synthesis of 5-HT without affecting its catabolism. The potency of this pesticide in elevating the pargyline-induced accumulation of 5-HT is in the order of carbaryl + PTZ greater than PTZ congruent to carbaryl. These results suggest that the carbaryl-induced increase in the synthesis of 5-HT is potentiated, and the turnover is reduced, in PM when PTZ is administered to the carbaryl-intoxicated rats.