BackgroundElevated pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is related to liver pathologies such as infections, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and tumors. Aim of this study is to evaluate serum PTX3 levels in NAFLD and its affection by concomitant chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV). Seventy subjects were included and divided into 3 groups. Group I included 25 patients with NAFLD. Group II included 25 patients with NAFLD and chronic HCV. Group III included 20 controls. Chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed using quantitative PCR. Plasma pentraxin-3 was measured using ELISA.ResultsPlasma PTX3 was significantly high in group Ι and group ΙΙ, when compared to controls. There was non-significant difference between groups Ι and ΙΙ as regard PTX3 level. Higher PTX3 levels were detected in relation to metabolic syndrome. Cut-off value of PTX3 ≥ 1.8 was the best to predict metabolic syndrome with 91.4% sensitivity, 60.0% specificity, 65.7% PPV, and 56.7% NPV.ConclusionSerum PTX level in patients with concomitant NAFLD and HCV infection apparently reflects inflammatory response due to changes in metabolic profile, rather than that caused by infection itself, making PTX possibly useful in identifying those at risk of developing metabolic syndrome.