Combination of kinds of therapy modalities is promising for effective cancer treatment. Herein, a kind of multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) was developed for cancer chemo-photothermal therapy applications. Polypyrrole (PPy) NPs were formed using a facile polymerization method using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as stabilizer, followed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading. Showing obvious absorbance in the NIR range, the obtained PPy-PEI-PEG NPs displayed well photothermal ability with desirable photothermal stability. The release of the loaded DOX can be promoted by pH and laser stimulation. Compared with single therapy modality, the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy showed higher cancer cell killing effect. The cellular internalization of the obtained NPs was proved to be effective. The developed multifunctional NPs are promising candidates for combined therapy of cancer cells.