The end of the 19th century represents a period of major innovation in the history of pediatrics. As early as 1888, at the first Congress of Medicine field in Brescia, the need was felt for a pediatric association in Italy; after various attempts, the Italian Association of Pediatrics (SIP) was set up in 1898 during the 3rd Italian Congress of Pediatrics held in Turin. On this occasion it was decided that the association should meet every 2 years in the largest Italian cities and, moreover, the first Status was put to the vote and approved. In this study the authors outline the evolution of pediatric studies in Turin over the years, focusing on the history of all the city's hospitals and the various publications used by doctors during the 19th century. In conclusion, the authors recall that pediatric science became a speciality during the last century, but remained within the framework of general medicine.