Pediatric obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Significant obesity-related comorbidities are being noted at earlier ages and often have implications for the acute and critically ill child. This article will review the latest in epidemiologic trends of pediatric obesity and examine how it affects multisystem body organs. The latest data evaluating the specific effects of obesity on acute and critically ill children will be reviewed. Available nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and surgical strategies to combat pediatric obesity will be discussed.