Morbidity and mortality from pediatric head injuries associated with the use of off-road vehicles are increasing. We reviewed all such injuries admitted to acute care hospitals in the two largest urban centers in Manitoba between April 1979 and August 1986. Of 375 injured children, 83 suffered head injury, 70 boys and 13 girls. Ages ranged from 2 to 15 years, with a mean of 10.4 years. Head injury was defined as any injury involving face, scalp or nervous system. Dirtbikes were implicated in 34 accidents, snowmobiles in 28, 3-wheel ATV's in 19, and 4-wheel ATV's in 2. About 85% of accidents occurred in a rural setting. Loss of vehicle control was the most common cause of injury. Alcohol or drug abuse were not factors. Fifty (60.2%) patients suffered loss of consciousness, prolonged in 6 (7.2%). All head-injured children also suffered at least one associated injury, mainly involving the musculoskeletal system. Associated spinal injury occurred in 18%. The average hospital stay was 13 days. Three (3.6%) patients died as a result of head injury.