Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprises ∼10% to 15% of childhood ALL cases, many of which respond exquisitely to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), for example, imatinib in PDGFRB -rearranged ALL. However, some cases developed drug resistance to TKIs and the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we identified a novel PDGFRB fusion gene, namely AGGF1 - PDGFRB , and functionally characterized its oncogenic potential in vitro. Further genomic profiling of longitudinally collected samples during treatment revealed the emergence of a mutation, PDGFRB C843G , which directly conferred resistance to all generations of ABL TKIs, including imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib. PDGFRB -mutant leukemia cells are highly sensitive to multitarget kinase inhibitor CHZ868, suggesting potential therapeutic options for some patients resistant to ABL TKIs. In summary, we describe a complex clonal evolution pattern in Ph-like ALL and identified a novel PDGFRB point mutation that drives leukemia relapse after ABL TKI treatment.