Paulownia species, especially their flowers and fruits, are traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases. C-geranylated flavonoids were found to be the major special metabolites in Paulownia flowers and fruits, and 76 C-geranylated flavonoids had been isolated and characterized thus far. Structural variations in Paulownia C-geranylated flavonoids are mainly due to the complicated structural modifications in their geranyl substituents. These natural compounds have attracted much attention because of their various biological activities, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cytotoxic activity and various enzymatic inhibitions, etc. Among them, diplacone, a major Paulownia component, was considered to have promise for applications in medicine. This paper summarizes the information from current publications on Paulownia C-geranylated flavonoids, with a focus on their structural variety, key spectroscopic characteristics, biological activity with structure–activity relationships and application prospects. We hope that this paper will stimulate further investigations of Paulownia species and this kind of natural product.