Paul Broca was an eminent surgeon, neurologist and anthropologist. He wrote many articles on brain anatomy, pathology of bones and joints, aneurysms, craniometry and physical anthropology, and he invented measuring instruments which are used even today. He described the condition of aphasia, called Broca's aphasia. Over a dozen anatomical features, including parts of the brain governing speech and smell, have made his name familiar to students. Thanks to his works on cancer and on tumors in general, he is considered as precursor of oncology.