We assessed levels of mitochondrial genetic spatial structuring in the hydropsychid caddisfly Cheumatopsyche sp. AV1 in southeastern New South Wales, Australia. No significant spatial structuring was detected within or between catchments using analysis of molecular variance, and nested clade contingency analysis suggested no strong relationship between haplotypes and geographical location, at any clade level. However, tests for association among haplotypes incorporating geographical distance in the nested clade analysis, revealed patterns of historical range expansion and recent restricted gene flow. Most likely, population fragmentation preceded range expansion, although subsequent recontact and gene flow among the previously sundered populations has apparently obscured the geographical signature of the former fragmentation. Taken together, our analyses suggest that a number of populations fragmented during the Pleistocene evolved in isolation for a time and subsequently expanded into secondary contact. Since expansion, there has apparently been substantial (albeit somewhat restricted) dispersal and gene flow of adult female Cheumatopsyche sp. AV1, throughout the study area.