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Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease Have Worse Functional Status at Time of Liver Transplant Registration and Greater Waitlist and Post-transplant Mortality Which Is Compounded by Older Age

Authors
  • McCabe, Patrick1
  • Galoosian, Artin1
  • Wong, Robert J.2
  • 1 California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA , San Francisco (United States)
  • 2 Alameda Health System – Highland Hospital, 1411 East 31st Street, Highland Hospital – Highland, Care Pavilion 5th Floor, Endoscopy Unit, Oakland, CA, 94602, USA , Oakland (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Oct 22, 2019
Volume
65
Issue
5
Pages
1501–1511
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10620-019-05891-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

BackgroundWorse functional status correlates with increased mortality on the liver transplant (LT) waitlist. Whether functional status affects LT outcomes equally across cirrhosis etiologies is unclear.AimsWe evaluate the impact of functional status on waitlist and post-LT mortality stratified by etiology and age.MethodsFunctional status among US adults from 2005 to 2017 United Network for Organ Sharing LT registry data was retrospectively evaluated using Karnofsky Performance Status Score (KPS-1 = functional status 80–100%, KPS-2 = 60–70%, KPS-3 = 40–50%, KPS-4 = 10–30%). Waitlist and post-LT survival were stratified by KPS and cirrhosis etiology, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatitis C (HCV), and HCV/ALD, and evaluated using Kaplan–Meier and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsAmong 94,201 waitlist registrants (69.4% men, 39.5% HCV, 26.7% ALD, 23.2% NASH), ALD patients had worse functional status compared to HCV (KPS-4: 17.2% vs. 8.3%, p < 0.001). Worse functional status at time of waitlist registration was associated with higher 90-day waitlist mortality with the greatest effect in ALD (KPS-4 vs. KPS-1: ALD HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.83–2.55; HCV HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.87–2.51). Similar trends occurred in 5-year post-LT survival with ALD patients the most harmed. Compared to patients < 50 years, patients ≥ 65 years had increased waitlist mortality at 90-days if they had HCV or HCV/ALD, and 5-year post-LT mortality regardless of cirrhosis etiology with ALD patients most severely affected.ConclusionsIn a retrospective cohort study of patients, US ALD patients had disparately worse functional status at time of LT waitlist registration. Worse functional status correlated with higher risk of waitlist and post-LT mortality, affecting ALD and HCV patients the most.

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