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Pathology in the appendicular bones of southern tamandua, Tamandua tetradactyla (Xenarthra, Pilosa): injuries to the locomotor system and first case report of osteomyelitis in anteaters

Authors
  • Cotts, Leonardo1, 2
  • Amaral, Roberta V.3
  • Laeta, Maíra1, 4, 5
  • Cunha-Filho, Carlos A.6
  • Moratelli, Ricardo2
  • 1 Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Interbloco B/C, Campus Ilha do Fundão, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 2 Fiocruz Mata Atlântica, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Estrada Rodrigues Caldas, 3400 - Curicica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 3 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Departamento de Geologia e Paleontologia, Museu Nacional, Quinta da Boa Vista, S, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, /N, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 4 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Departamento de Vertebrados, Setor de Mastozoologia, Museu Nacional, Quinta da Boa Vista, S/N, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 5 Grupo de Estudos de Mamíferos Marinhos da Região dos Lagos (GEMM-Lagos), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 6 Institute of Biodiversity and Sustainability at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (NUPEM/UFRJ), Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Conservação do Campus Macaé da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Av. São José Barreto, 764 - São José do Barreto, Macaé, RJ, Brazil , Macaé (Brazil)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Veterinary Research
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Apr 25, 2019
Volume
15
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1869-x
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundThe southern tamandua, Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758), is the most common species of anteater. Even though much is known about its ecology, behavior, and parasites, there is very limited information about bone diseases in Tamandua and other anteaters. Here, we examined postcranial skeletons of 64 T. tetradactyla museum specimens covering most of the material available in Brazilian collections.ResultsThe following bone diseases were identified for the first time in Tamandua and other extant and fossil vermilinguans: osteophytes, osteitis, osteoarthritis, periostitis, exostoses, enthesopathies, and a severe chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis associated with fistulae, cloacae (pus), bone loss, and neoformation processes. Musculoskeletal reconstruction revealed that an old specimen was restricted to terrestrial locomotion due to osteopathological processes that impaired its climbing.ConclusionsNew osteopathological informations are presented for T. tetradactyla, favoring a better understanding of the expression of some bone diseases in wild animals. In addition, the diagnosis of these bone diseases in living anteaters provides useful information for studies on animal health and welfare, as well as contributing to the more effective recognition of paleodiseases in fossil xenarthrans.

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