Haemophilic arthropathy (HA), caused by intra-articular haemorrhage, is one of the most common complications in patients with haemophilia. Factor replacement therapy provides missing coagulation factors to prevent children with haemophilia from joint bleeding and decreases their risk for HA. However, haemophilia patients in developing countries are still suffering from HA due to insufficient replacement therapy. Symptoms such as pain and activity limitations caused by HA seriously affect the functional abilities and quality of life of patients with HA, causing a high disability rate in the haemophilia cohort. The pathological mechanism of HA is complicated because the whole pathological mainly involves hypertrophic synovitis, osteopenia, cartilage and bone destruction, and these pathological changes occur in parallel and interact with each other. Inflammation plays an important role in the whole complex pathological process, and iron, cytokines, growth factors and other factors are involved. This review summarizes the pathological mechanism of HA to provide background for clinical and basic research.