Aluminum encephalopathy was formed in rabbits as a result of intraventricular administration of aluminum chloride. A study was made of changes in the neurological status, neuronal activity in the motor area of the cortex, electronystagmogram and neuronal structure in fields 4 and 17 of the cortex of large hemispheres. The animals demonstrated the worsening of olfaction, vision, audition, weakening of the reflexes of the craniocerebral nerves and motor reflexes. There was a decrease in spontaneous activity and irregularity of neuronal impulsation. Neurofibrillar degeneration in the neurons, vacuolization of the cytoplasm, swelling of the nucleus together with chromatolysis and ectopia of the nucleolus were recorded.