Mycoplasmas are smallest organisms capable of self-replication and cause various diseases in human. Especially, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is known as an etiological agent of pneumonia. From 2010 to 2012, epidemics of M. pneumoniae infections were reported worldwide (e.g., in France, Israel, and Japan). In the diseases caused by mycoplasmas, strong inflammatory responses induced by mycoplasmas have been thought to be important. However, mycoplasmas lack of cell wall and do not possess inflammation-inducing endotoxin such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We purified inflammation-inducing factors from pathogenic mycoplasmas and identified that they were lipoproteins. Lipoproteins derived from mycoplasmas induced inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. In addition, we demonstrated that cytadherent property of M. pneumoniae played an important role in induction of inflammatory responses. Cytadherent property of M. pneumoniae induced inflammatory responses through TLR2 independent pathway. TLR4, inflammasomes, and autophagy were involved in this TLR2 independent induction of inflammatory responses.