Renal transplant patients were screened for the presence of parvovirus B19, before transplantation and monthly for 4 months after transplantation, by means of a sensitive nested PCR assay. Upon screening plasma from 110 patients, we found that two asymptomatic patients were B19 DNA positive. One of these patients was PCR positive in the plasma sample taken 2 months after transplantation; the plasma contained anti-B19 IgG antibodies before transplant and throughout the follow-up period, with an increase in the IgG level in the second posttransplant sample coinciding with the detection of B19 DNA. IgM antibodies to B19 were not detected in this patient. Because, for this patient, the donor's spleen DNA was also B19 DNA positive, we suspect B19 transmission from the donor and limited B19 replication, inasmuch as this patient already had a primed immune response to B19. The other patient was PCR positive in the pretransplant and in the plasma sample taken 1 month after transplant and contained a strong anti-B19 IgG response in the pretransplant sample and throughout the follow-up period-and anti-B19 IgM antibodies were not detected before or after transplantation. By testing samples taken from this patient at 2 weeks, 2 months, and 3 months before transplantation, we were able to determine that the infection occurred shortly before transplantation. Unexpectedly, this graft failed and was removed 2 days after transplantation despite a negative cross-match. A pathological examination of the kidney indicated acute vascular rejection, suggesting a possible role for B19 in this complication.