We show that the parton distribution functions (PDF) described by the statistical model have very interesting physical properties which help to understand the structure of partons. The role of the quark helicity components is emphasized as they represent the building blocks of the PDF. In the model the sign of the polarized quarks PDF comes out in a quite natural way once the thermodynamical potentials with a given helicity are known. Introducing the concept of entropy we study the states madeof |2u + d >, |u +d +s > and $|2\bar u +\bar d >$, for a fixed Q^2, the variation with x shows that the first state has a dominant entropy due to the effect of u quark. We prove that the PDF parameters obtained from experiments give in fact an optimal solution of an entropy equation subject to constraints. We develop a new approach of the polarized gluon density based on a neural model which explains its property, in particular, a large positivity value and an agreement with the positvity constraint. An extension of this neural approach is applied to quarks giving a coherent description of the partons structure.