Exposure to particulate matter (PM) <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to detrimental health effects. This study aimed to describe the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and kidney disease, including eGFR, level of albuminuria, and incident CKD. The study included 10,997 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort who were followed from 1996-1998 through 2016. Monthly mean PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were estimated at geocoded participant addresses using geographic information system-based, spatiotemporal generalized additive mixed models-including geospatial covariates such as land use-and then averaged over the 12-month period preceding participant examination. Covariate-adjusted, cross-sectional associations of PM2.5, baseline eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) were estimated using linear regression. PM2.5 and incident CKD (defined as follow-up eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 with ≥25% eGFR decline relative to baseline, CKD-related hospitalization or death based on International Classification of Diseases 9/10 codes, or development of ESKD) associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Modeling was stratified by study site, and stratum-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Baseline mean participant age was 63 (±6) years and eGFR was 86 (±16) ml/min per 1.73 m2. There was no significant PM2.5-eGFR association at baseline. Each 1-μg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher UACR after adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and clinical covariates (percentage difference, 6.6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.6% to 10.7%). Each 1-μg/m3 higher annual average PM2.5 was associated with a significantly higher risk of incident CKD (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10). Exposure to higher annual average PM2.5 concentrations was associated with a higher level of albuminuria and higher risk for incident CKD in a community-based cohort. Copyright © 2020 by the American Society of Nephrology.