Background: Genomic research has innumerable benefits. However, if people are unwilling to participate in genomic research, application of knowledge will be limited. This study examined the likelihood of respondents from a high- and a low- to middle-income country to participate in genetic research. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk workforce to ascertain attitudes toward participation in genetic research. Registered country of residence was either the US (n = 505) or India (n = 505). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess adjusted effects of demographic characteristics, health, social status, beliefs and concerns on 4 genetic research outcomes. Results: Participants from India who believed chance and powerful others influenced their health were more likely to participate in genetic research (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 1.0-1.1) and to agree with sharing of DNA data (OR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2). US participants were more likely to be concerned about protection of family history, which they indicated would affect participation (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.1-6.0). Commonalities for the likelihood of participation were beliefs that genetic research could help find new treatments (India OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.4; US OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.2) and descendants would benefit (India OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5; US OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.1). Conclusions: Concurrence of beliefs on benefits and concerns about genetic research suggest they may be common across countries. Consideration of commonalities may be important to increase global participation in genetic research.